We find, in addition to these rhetorical amplifications, narrative episodes derived neither from Felix nor from Peter, notably the recovery of a lost psalter at A long discourse at Correspondences of wording, biblical allusion, and narrative establish the reliance of the Vita sancti Edmundi VE on the tenth-century life of Edmund by Abbo of Fleury; but Henry adapts Abbo more loosely than any of his other sources, entirely omitting substantial portions of his model.
Ve matribus illis que conculcato uos peperere sinu! Iste quid offecit, uestri saciare furoris ne qua sitim possit sanguinis unda sui?
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Douie and David Hugh Farmer, eds. Hugh of Avalon, Bishop of Lincoln , ed. Richard M. Loomis New York, Hugh, TOWNSEND quod uos in siluis ursi genuere rapaces uestri cedis amor, uestra rapina probat; uestrorumque ducum genitor deus esse probatur si possit demon incubus esse deus. Hie rex catholicus diuos ursosque domandos duxit, rex ursos catholicusque deos. Forsan et hec uestros armauit causa furores. Ipse tamen nescit se meruisse necem. Tanta quid ergo iuuat effusio sanguinis, et tot unius causas multiplicare necis?
A miracle story at At The Vita sancti Thome VT relies extremely closely in These treatises tend to regard composition as a reworking and elaboration of materia already executed in developed literary form: the poet typically performs his tasks of inventio and dispositio not upon raw and previously unexploited subject matter, but rather upon available literary treatments.
Rolls Series 67 London, , Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable with Carol D. Lanham Cambridge, Mass. Notable among these are the long doctrinal discourses incorporated into the VO Set quod dico nichil, hoc supponamus vt unam per se naturam; fuit hec natura creandis spiritibus, tanquam pro causa materiali; utque faber cultrum de ferro, sic Deus illos de puro nichilo diuina condidit arte.
Sic igitur quid fecit eos? De quo? De nichilo. Cum uero sibi contraria nunquam succedant nisi per medium, cum protulit illos ex non esse Deus, nondum perfecit in esse, set medium prefixit eis, quo proueherentur aut quo deficerent, racione videlicet vti; quoque solubilius possent discernere culpam a merito, uoluit ut libera cuique daretur optio, per cuius motum fas omnibus esset tendere quo mallent, ad causam materialem que nichil est fierique nichil uel ad efficientem que Deus est fierique deos docuitque petende oppositas utriusque uias, ne forte cadentes excusare scelus erroris ymagine possent.
Henry also employs epic similes, for example, those at VO and TOWNSEND At pugil intrepidus Christi Guthlacus, ab illis dum graue perpendit et formidabile mirum, se gerit audacem, Pellei more leonis hostem qui postquam medio conspexit in aruo erigit egregium pectus, caudeque flagello nititur irasci, Unguaque ueneficat ungues fastiditque moras, et protinus impetit hostem; haut aliter, simul ac heremo Guthlacus in ilia demonas attendit habitare, cor erigit, iram concipit, et precibus fidei corroborat arma, iamque more tedet, iam flagrat amore duelli VG Nam simul Hyberni periere tyrannidis arcus, utpote bruma, gelu, glacies, nix, grando, procella, quando repubescit uiridi lanugine tellus, et releuet Tytan nostrum uicinior orbem, tunc ab hyrundinibus, ad nostrum clima reuersis, gaudia fert primi reditus, ambitus earum ambitibus blandis, alludentisque susurri uoce salutatus securum prebet asilum, et loca distribuit ponendis singula nidis, fertque residentes humeris dextraque fideli mulcet et impertit proprii consorcia uictus VG Hie status est dame, que quando reuertitur esu inuenit errantem per sua lustra lupum: dilitet infelix dum predo recesserit, itque et redit, et proprios excubat ante lares— haut secus ecclesiam latebris formido cohercet, dum uidet horrentes in sua regna Dacos, nam piratarum furum spirare furorem credit, et absentes fingit adesse timor— mox successiue profert caput, erigit aures, circumfert oculos, egrediturque foras, et dubio suspensa metu nunc exit in arua, nunc redit in siluas, itque reditque frequens VE The head-to-toe physical description found in VO parallels a similar treatment in VF The use of elaborate distributio to spin out a series of parallel statements appears ubiquitously; typical examples can be found at VO , , , and These are paralleled in the VB by the following passages:.
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Birinus siquidem mare metitur pedes—ecce gressus; Suithunus benedictum preterit—ecce cursus; Adelwoldus de terris emicat—ecce saltus; Martinus celum petit—ecce uolatus VB Hie est cos, dos, flos, et ros: cos relligionis, dos fidei, flos ecclesie, ros dogmatis; hie est libra, liber, lumen, limes, scola, scalaque: libra consilii, liber eloquii, lumen rationis, limes honestatis, scola morum, scala salutis VB Another parallel is VE Presentes hec intuitos miracula quis non et plausisse sciat et doluisse putet? Sanctus enim martyr et uiuum se probat: ecce plausus; et occisus cemitur: ecce dolor.
His fondness for paranomasia is frequently in evidence, sometimes in purely conventional manifestations, as on the contrasting pairs onus-honor VO ; cf. VB and praeesse-prodesse VO ; cf. VB , sometimes in more original applications VO 79, , and with particular frequency in connection with his fascination for onomastics VO 72, , ; cf. Explicit concern for the spiritual implications of style tends to mark earlier verse hagiography, as it does the prose texts as well, in somewhat different guise. Henry declares his anxiety over the arduous task of describing the exploits of Christian heroes who outstrip classical subjects in the glory of their deeds; but the more standard dubitatio over moral worthiness is missing, along with the requisite abnegation of pagan literary 18 D.
The exhortations of Bartholomew to the young Guthlac at The simile at Nam tisice perit ariditas et reumatis humor, letargi frigus ictericeque calor, canceris ingluuies, lepre putredo, podagre nodus, demonii fraus, manieque furor et febrium languor, epilensieque procella, ydroposisque tumor, paralisisque tremor VE By medieval standards these latter writers employ copious elision, using it about as frequently as Ovid, although far less often than Vergil. At the same time, variation of principal caesura in a work such as the Alexandreis provides a flexibility of effect far more in fine with the classical tradition than the pervasive domination of the penthemimeral caesura in much contemporary verse.
At the same time, Henry avoids hiatus, although several examples occur in the present text at fin es 30 here emended , , , and Roussel and F. Suard, eds. Thus the data would argue against any textual emendation involving the creation of elision; but likewise the presence of elision does not justify editorial interference. The elimination of hiatus, on the other hand, might support an otherwise desirable emendation, as at VO Nearly all other fines display trochaic caesura in the third foot, accompanied by trihemimeral and hepthe- mimeral caesura, or very rarely by only one of these.
In 2 or 3 percent of the lines there is no caesura in the third foot. On the other hand, the principal caesura is located in penthemimeral position less frequently than these statistics might suggest, and in fact occurs with some frequency at the second- and fourth-foot breaks which often accompany that in the third foot of the fine.
In 20 to 30 percent of all fines the principal syntactic division is in one of these alternative positions. This occurs rather less frequently in the VB, where we find it in well under 10 percent of selected fines, and most often in the VFr and VE, where around 15 percent of all fines display it taking into account only the hexameters in the elegiac VE ; the other texts fall between these two extremes.
In well over half the occurrences, a monosyllable at the beginning of the fifth foot precedes the break, which is often followed by a single quadrasyllable, as in classical practice. We find lengthening of a short vowel at the penthemimeral caesura about 10 percent of the time in the VO and VG but less frequently in the other fives, where the figure is closer to the classicizing practice of the Alexandreis 6.
Essays honour anton charles pegis
O gens scelerosa, quid audes? TOWNSEND especially the -o of gerunds and finite verbs and the -i of ubi and ibi, are sometimes shortened, but this classically attested usage does not occur so frequently as to constitute a mannerism. Synizesis reflects classical usage in its occasional appearances. A particularly notable instance of variable scansion can be seen in the quantitative instability of genitives in -ius in the VG.
Cambridge, University Library Dd.
Since an exhaustive description has appeared elsewhere, 74 no detailed account is given here. The foliation, in brown ink, is correct. Quires and 8 carry catchwords corresponding to the following leaf, though a hand of the fifteenth century has added that for quire 6 on fol. The leaves of most quires measure approximately x mm. Quire 7 measures about x mm. Quire 8 measures about x mm. An unformed, rather ungainly hand with cursive traits writes most of the volume. Some risers are barbed or forked, others are plain.
D occasionally loops back to the right as in an Angficana hand. Variations in the script seem mostly to be a matter of pen and ink changes. Different hands write two short sections, on fols. Fourteenth-century hands also make noteworthy additions. On fol. In the margin of fol. Sancte Marie. The last folio of quire 5 and the first three of quire 6 contain a number of short pieces; the ruling of these folios varies from item to item. The VB begins partway through fol.
The VO occupies quires 8 and 9; the prologue appears after the main text cf. More miscellaneous verses fill the remainder of the last leaf. As it is, the miscellaneous pieces cannot really be explained as simply filling in space at the juncture of two Jibe Hi: the short pieces are written out at the beginning of a fresh quire whose main piece does not begin for several folios.
The VO falls neatly into the last two quires and could conceivably have constituted a separate unit before its inclusion in the volume. The wear on the last leaf of quire 7 might support the notion that the VO is an independent libellus added later; or it might be only the result of the 75 N.
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Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain, 2d ed. London, , A comparison of A and B in terms of their common texts— VI3 and VO —indicates that neither manuscript could have been copied from the other: each contains errors not shared with the other, and there are no common errors to suggest descent from a single ancestor much removed from an archetype.
Edu Thesis & Essay:
The text of the VO is somewhat problematic. In the first place, both manuscripts associate the prologue with the main text as an afterthought. In A the main text begins on fol. This continuity is broken by the prologue, written by Matthew Paris on a separate bifolium inserted into the manuscript as fols. In B the prologue begins without comment on fol. Recitations at Peterborough and local copies would certainly retain this material, while copies made elsewhere might conceivably omit it.
That both surviving copies leave out the prologue but then include it as an afterthought suggests that the exemplars of both A and B omitted it, and that the compilers—Matthew Paris in the case of A, and the single main scribe in the case of B —added it later when they had seen a manuscript including it. One assumes that this would have been the Peterborough presentation copy or its local descendant.
The marginal notations and corrections of Matthew Paris in A bear an indefinable relationship to nonextant manuscripts. A number of these marginalia clearly correct or attempt to correct defective readings, whether they bring A into conformity with B or differ from B. While Matthew is responsible for both classes of marginalia, the critical apparatus below maintains a distinction between corrections Ac and non-corrective annotations, along with marginal rubrics Am.
Improvements of clearly defective readings in A have been labelled Ac, along with glosses that bring the text into conformity with B. When the variant represents no improvement over an intelligible reading in A and does not agree with B, I have usually assumed that Matthew is simply noting synonyms and I list the variant as Am. I subsequently refer to this textual material as R.
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These substantial additional sections might have been included in a fuller original version of which the M-text is an abridgement; or they may represent a later expansion of an original version closer to A. A, on the other hand, can stand as a self-contained version without breaks in continuity: the sections unique to B are separable anecdotes and have required only minimal adjustment of the adjacent lines. The books he made, as Vaughan points out, 82 tend toward random absorption rather than excision and system. The character of the Liber additamentorum reinforces this impression: on this latter, see Matthew Paris, chap.
I conclude, then, that the 5-version probably represents a subsequent expansion. It makes some sense that Henry might have thus expanded his original version. In the case of Francis, Henry was dealing with a very recent saint, and in that of Birinus with one of a less securely and widely established tradition. In dealing so summarily with Oswald, on the other hand, Henry would have stepped on toes.
Well-known anecdotes originally omitted simply had to be restored.source link
Commentary for Riddle 49 – The Riddle Ages
Nine passages in A contain one or more lines that do not appear in B. In five cases, In two cases, In This may also be true in the case of In the other seven passages, however, the changes have minimal effect, so that the omissions may not represent deliberate polishing. They are just as likely accidental omissions, for which intelligent scribal adjustment has compensated when necessary in a later manuscript. If they are, in fact, all deliberate revisions, one wonders why no more were made on an equally fastidious level. In noua fert animus antiquas uertere prosas B 71r, A r carmina, que numero, mensura, pondere firmet inmutabilibus librata proporcio causis: Perpetuare uolens mundum Deus in tribus istis 5 a primo stabiliuit eum, causamque manendi contulit una trium cunctis prescisio rebus; quantum diuine permittitur artis honorem ars humana sequi, tantum pro posse sequetur hunc in presentis operis mea Musa tenore, 10 que tamen istius nichil artis adinuenit.
Immo sic apud antiquos erat assuetudo uirorum scribere uirtutes et perpetuare triumphos ut memorata magis uirtus imitabilis esset; quoque supersticibus animos exempla priorum 15 uiuendi post fata darent, aliquando poete intertexebant aliquid de stamine falsi, augendo titulos et fictis facta iuuando. Alciden yperbolice commendat Homerus, Galterus pingit toruo Philippida uultu, 20 Cesareasque minus laudes Lucanus adauget.